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Managing

Visionaries both, Armand Peugeot and René Panhard very early on began manufacturing the new means of transport known as the automobile. In 1896, Armand Peugeot founded his own company “La Société Anonyme des Automobiles Peugeot” devoted solely to automobile production. In 1919 in his Quai de Javel factory, André Citroën began manufacturing the “Type A”.

Over the course of the subsequent years, these companies’ growth was aided by capital increases, searches for new partnerships and financial agreements, which enabled them to increase their know-how and to reinforce their position in various fields. That’s how in 1920, with a view to favoring access to the automobile, André Citroën created the first consumer-loan company.

This strategic development went hand in hand with social initiatives. Very early on, Peugeot implemented a system to assist workers, in both their professional and private lives. This included the creation of mutual-aid organizations, hospitals, social housing, and worker cooperatives. This support for employees continued during difficult periods in history: during the First World War, with the authorization to issue currency to meet needs, then, during the Second World War, with the organization of food provisions for the personnel. Since the end of the XIXth century, there have also been the “Fraternelles” (brotherhoods), then the “RAVIs”, cooperatives offering food products at reduced cost.

Post-war, these social initiatives continued under the management of works councils, along with the organization of activities like holiday camps

 

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Report by Armand Peugeot – January 1892

Report by Armand Peugeot – January 1892

Armand Peugeot, sure of the future of the automobile from its very infancy, tried on several occasions to get the Établissements Peugeot Frères involved in developing this industry.

This forward-looking vision turned out to be too revolutionary for his associates, and he was forced to break away from the rest of the family to become the sole founder of the Société des Automobiles Peugeot.

 

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Selection of shares issued by Peugeot and Citroën

Selection of shares issued by Peugeot and Citroën

Going from a small mill to a multinational company means creating, acquiring, and reorganizing new companies, providing them with the means to exercise their trades and ensure balanced growth. Concrete proof of the venerable age, diverse activities, and expansion of PSA Peugeot Citroën, the Terre Blanche Archive Center holds a collection of more than 350 shares and bonds issued since 1893 by the various companies which participated in its history.

 

Colonie de vacances à Maiche en 1958.

Holiday camp in Maîche – 1958

Holiday camp in Maîche – 1958

Created in 1945, for a long time the Comité d’Etablissement de Sochaux was the leading private works council in France. An organization well known for its social works: holiday camps, health centers, activities for young people, Christmas trees…

 

 

 

Certificat nominatif d'une action Citroën en 1936.

Registered Share Certificate N°1 from the Société André Citroën – 1936

Registered Share Certificate N°1 from the Société André Citroën – 1936

 In 1935, Michelin became the majority shareholder in the Citroën company, which was in serious financial difficulty at the time. A few years later, the launch of the 2CV, the economical car, also led to an increase in tire sales.

 

Règlement de la caisse secours des frères Peugeot en 1853.

Regulations of the mutual-aid fund of the Établissements Peugeot Frères – 1853

Regulations of the mutual-aid fund of the Établissements Peugeot Frères – 1853

Starting in 1820, given the rapid growth of their activities, the opening of new production sites, and the massive employment of local employees and later employees from neighboring regions, the Peugeot family right away firmly placed itself at the forefront in terms of human relations.

The workers with two years’ seniority received financial aid in case of illness or invalidity, and a pension when they were no longer of age to work; it went to their widow, in the even of their death. This system was reinforced in 1853: birth bonuses, accident insurance, funeral indemnities.

Salle d'opération d'Hélène Peugeot en 1900

Operating room in Hélène Peugeot Hospital – 1900

 

 

Operating room in Hélène Peugeot Hospital – 1900
Adopting a pragmatic and responsibility-fostering approach typical of the Protestant ethic, the Peugeot family successively created mutual-aid organizations, social housing, worker cooperatives, hospitals, and dispensaries… During the First World War, provision services were set up, later becoming the RAVI – moderate-price stores near the employees’ workplace. These original initiatives were gradually replaced by the intervention of State organizations.